Category Archives: Endangered Species

Family of pigeons, doves features one famous member

Vivian Tester of Bristol, Tennessee, sent me an email seeking help with a pigeon problem.

“I need your advice on trying to keep the pigeons off my bird feeders,” Vivian wrote. “They are chasing off the birds I want to feed and devouring all the seed. My neighbor says they are doves but whatever they are, they are annoying. I don’t know if the squirrel-proof feeder would work or not. I would appreciate any help.”

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Photo of a rock pigeon by Pixabay on Pexels.com

I recommended that Vivian offer only black oil sunflower seeds to see if that might can discourage the unwanted guests. While pigeons will eat sunflower seeds, they much prefer smaller seeds like milo and millet often found in mixed seed packages. If their preferred food source dries up, they may be convinced to move elsewhere.

Stopping feeding for a trial period is another possibility. Remove food for a week and then slowly start offering seeds again. If the pigeons have moved to other feeding grounds, perhaps they will be slow to return.

It’s a tough problem to solve. Although some feeders can be designed to prevent a large bird like a pigeon or dove from perching, the birds are going to still make the attempt. In doing so, they knock seed to the ground below and will happily feed on the spillage. The best option for avoiding pigeons would be to use tube feeders designed for minimal spillage if jostled. Doves and pigeons prefer to feed on the ground, so scattering seeds there, intentionally or inadvertently, is an invitation for flocks to gather.

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Photo by Jean Potter • The widespread rock pigeon is one of the most successful members of the bird family Columbidae, which is comprised of some 310 species of doves and pigeons. One of the most famous representatives of the family is the dodo, an extinct relative of such common birds as the mourning dove and rock pigeon.

Nature, too, offers a solution. Several species of raptors prey readily on doves and pigeons. Peregrine falcons and Cooper’s hawks are two effective controls on such birds, but it is not easy to issue an invitation for one of these birds to take up residence in your yard.

The two mostly likely offenders in the region are the mourning dove and the rock pigeon. Mourning doves are an abundant native species at home in both rural areas and suburbs. The rock pigeon is not a native species but has thrived in the United States since it first arrived with early colonists from Europe. Rock pigeons are mostly a problem for people attempting to feed birds in urban and suburban areas.

Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae, which is comprised of some 310 species. One of the most famous members of this family is the extinct bird known as the dodo. The well-known story of the dodo doesn’t often make reference to the relations this bird had to living doves and pigeons.

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In the lower right corner of this illustration, a dodo is visible along with such birds                        as macaws, cranes, and even a wild turkey. Titled “Landscape with Birds,” this painting            was done by artist Roelant Savery in 1628.

Early scientists did not know what to make of the dodo and theorized that the unusual flightless bird was everything from a small ostrich to flightless versions of an albatross or a vulture. Johannes Theodor Reinhardt, a zoologist from Denmark, hinted at the dodo’s relationship to the world’s pigeons and doves as early as 1842. At first his theory was ridiculed, but other biologists and zoologists eventually came to accept the fact that the dodo was indeed a large, flightless pigeon.

The dodo stood a few inches over three feet tall and could weigh close to 40 pounds. Most of what is known about the dodo comes from paintings and drawings of the bird made by early explorers in the 17th century. Some of the humans who observed the bird also left behind valuable written accounts. First discovered by Dutch sailors who visited the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius in 1598, the dodo became extinct only 64 years later. So about the same time the rock pigeon was establishing itself as an introduced species of bird in North America, around the world one of its cousins slid quietly into extinction.800px-Van_den_Venne_dodo 2

The dodo has acquired a reputation in popular culture as slow-witted, lethargic, fat, clumsy and stupid, dooming the bird as a creature too ill-suited to exist. Today, most scientists believe that the dodo was adapted perfectly to its island habitat. Having evolved as a flightless bird, the arrival of humans in its paradise meant its doom. The reputation for stupidity is unfair. Having never encountered humans, dodos did not have an instinctive fear of them. This lack of fear made it easy for the early explorers of their island home to quickly render them extinct.

Modern science has even pinpointed the dodo’s closest living relative. Thanks to DNA analysis, the Nicobar pigeon of southeast Asia has been identified as the closest relation of the dodo. The Nicobar pigeon is much smaller (only 16 inches long) and, unlike its famous relative, is capable of flight. This pigeon feeds mostly on fruit and seed. When grain of any kind is available, it will also make use of such a food source.

Most contemporary sources reveal that the dodo enjoyed a diet rich in fruit, but modern biologists speculate the dodo probably also foraged for nuts, seeds and tubers. It’s ironic that the dodos were slaughtered to extinction to provide food for early explorers of their island. An English explorer by the name of Sir Thomas Herbert recognized the dodo’s exploitation as a food source, but disparaged the bird’s taste. “To the delicate they are offensive and of no nourishment,” Herbert wrote in his published work, “A Relation of Some Years Travel into Africa and the Greater Asia.”

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This sketch, completed in 1634 by Sir Thomas Herbert, shows a broad-billed parrot, a red rail and possibly one of the last dodos to exist on the planet. Herbert described the dodo as a rather poor food source for early explorers to its island home. 

Like the pigeons that have become a scourge on Vivian’s feeders, it’s very likely that, had they survived, dodos might visit feeders today on the island of Mauritius. For the most part, the world’s doves and pigeons are considered successful birds.

In the United States, some other native doves include the widespread mourning dove, as well as white-winged dove, common ground dove and Inca dove. The Eurasian collared-dove, introduced into the Bahamas and Florida, has now spread extensively into the United States and is known to have established populations through northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia.

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Photo by Bryan Stevens • A mourning dove stretches a wing while perched on a feeder.

Some descriptive names for some of the world’s doves include purple-winged ground dove, lemon dove, zebra dove, ochre-bellied dove, tambourine dove, white-faced cuckoo-dove, ring-necked dove, little cuckoo-dove and sapphire quail-dove. Pigeons have also been bestowed with such colorful names as snow pigeon, speckled pigeon, yellow-eyed pigeon, pale-capped pigeon, metallic pigeon, crested pigeon, pink pigeon and squatter pigeon.

We all like to attract as many birds as possible to our yards and gardens. A variety of food will help achieve that objective. Be aware, though, that such free buffets will also encourage messy birds like pigeons that make feathered pigs of themselves and almost always overstay their welcome. There’s also the option to admire pigeons and doves as survivors with a lineage worthy of some admiration. Hang some tube feeders accessible to smaller songbirds but toss some seeds into a corner of the yard for the ground-feeding pigeons and doves. They’re birds, too, after all.

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English naturalists dissected a dodo skull, shown in this sketch, in 1848 to help prove the relationship of the dodo to pigeons.

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Great white heron pays unexpected area visit to Steele Creek Park

I wrote a few weeks ago about the tendency of long-legged wading birds to wander far afield from their usual coastal haunts in late summer. In the ensuing weeks, numerous sightings of some unexpected waders have been reported throughout the region and beyond. 
Jeremy Stout, the manager of the Nature Center at Steele Creek Park in Bristol, reported that a great white heron generated some birding excitement among park visitors. Stout noted that the heron was first reported by Sherry Willinger on Monday and Tuesday, Aug. 7-8, and then found again by Ruth and Mary Clark on Friday, Aug. 11. Stout also managed to get a photograph of the heron, which has been seen just outside the park grounds between Ralph Harr Bridge and Highway 126. Steele Creek Park Naturalist Don Holt saw the heron again on Aug. 15. He invited others who see the heron to share their sightings by calling the park’s Nature Center at (423) 989-5616. Reports will help the park staff document the duration of the rare visitor’s stay and keep interested birders informed of its presence. 
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Photo by Jeremy Stout
This great white heron was photographed near Steele Creek Park in Bristol. Currently considered the same species as the great blue heron, there is debate among experts about granting the great white heron status as a species in its own right. 

In early August, Cheryl Livingston reported a great white heron and a great egret at Watauga Lake in Hampton. While only a handful of records exist for the great white heron in this region, these observations will not help boost the lists of any area birders. The great white heron and the great blue heron, scientifically speaking, are the same species — at least for the moment.
According to the website for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, this large wading bird, originally thought to be just a white color morph of the great blue heron, might actually deserve consideration as its own species. The website’s profile of the great white heron notes that recent research about the great white suggests that it is at least a subspecies of the great blue heron. Some preliminary unpublished data suggests that the bird may even be a completely separate species. That would be exciting news for many birders, who would be able to quickly add an unexpected bird to their life lists. 
The majestic great white heron usually ranges throughout south Florida and the Florida Keys, but individuals wander far from those parts of the Sunshine State after the nesting season. 
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Painting by John James Audubon of the iconic Great White Heron of Florida.

The great white heron — as its name suggests — differs dramatically in appearance from a great blue heron, mostly in having all-white plumage. In addition, the great white heron has a yellow bill, which is heavier and more solid than the slender bill of the smaller great egret, for which it could be confused at a casual glance. The great blue heron, known by the scientific named of Ardea herodias, can stand 54 inches tall and weigh close to eight pounds. 
Waders other than great white herons have been wandering this summer. Farther afield, Michael Sledjeski has been reporting little blue herons and great egrets at Rankin Bottoms, which is a birding hot spot at Douglas Lake in East Tennessee. The location is well known among birders as a magnet for shorebirds and wading birds. Sightings of wood storks have been somewhat widespread in Tennessee and Virginia this summer. 
In addition, other waders are showing up far from their usual ranges. For instance, a roseate spoonbill — a large, pink wading bird — has shown up as far north as Pennsylvania, marking the first time the species has been sighted in the Keystone State since 1968.  
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Photo by Bryan Stevens • Identifying white herons and egrets can be a tricky business. This immature Little Blue Heron is just starting to get the          blue feathers of adulthood. 

I’ve not seen anything as exciting as a wood stork or roseate spoonbill at home, but on several occasions in the past couple of weeks my fish pond has been visited by great blue herons. A couple of these visitors were young birds, which are probably wandering widely during their first summer out of the nest. I’ve also seen green herons at the pond and in the creeks along the linear trail in Erwin. 
If the great white heron eventually gains recognition as a separate species, I will already have the bird on my Tennessee bird list thanks to a sighting of one several years ago at Musick’s Campground on Holston Lake in Bristol. Ironically, I’ll not have this bird on my Florida list, as I’ve not seen it in its southern stronghold. 
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Birds, other wildlife deserve protection of Endangered Species Act

Photo by Lisa Hupp/USFWS • A bald eagle has an average of 7,000 feathers. Bald eagles are protected under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act. For instance, it is against the law to possess their feathers or other remains. Eagles are abundant enough they no longer qualify for listing under the Endangered Species Act.

The Endangered Species Act serves as one of the strongest, most effective wildlife protection laws in the world. Although the ESA was not meant to protect only birds — the law actually protects everything from bats and whales to wolves and shellfish — it has done an outstanding job ensuring that our feathered friends continue to fly free and thrive in a world they must increasingly share with human beings.

According to Earthjustice — an environmental law organization that uses the power of the law to fight for the earth and its inhabitants — the ESA was passed with overwhelming bipartisan support more than 40 years ago to provide a legal safety net for wildlife, fish and plant species that are in danger of extinction.

Photo by Scott Flaherty/USFWS • The California condor is an example of a species saved from the brink of extinction thanks to the Endangered Species Act. Much work remains to be done to protect this large bird.

Earthjustice and other environmental groups are warning that some members of the current Congress want to slash the Endangered Species Act, threatening the very existence of the imperiled wildlife and ecosystems the Act protects. Some politicians from the state of Utah seem to be leading this effort, which is a sad irony considering the wealth of natural majesty the unique lands of Utah has to offer.

None other than President Richard Nixon, a Republican, signed the ESA into law back on Dec. 28, 1973, and it was an effort that crossed political party lines that made the legislation a reality. Biologists warn that our planet is facing a sixth wave of mass extinction, according to a release from Earthjustice. The Endangered Species Act, which has prevented 99 percent of the species under its care from vanishing, is precisely the kind of effective tool needed today. It has revived the bald eagle, the American alligator, the California condor and many others.

House Natural Resources Chairman Rob Bishop (R-UT) has said he wants to “repeal and replace” the Endangered Species Act. Others are supporting legislative proposals that would make it harder for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to resolve Endangered Species Act lawsuits. The ESA is truly a prime example of the old saying, “If it’s not broke, don’t try to fix it.” Bishop and his allies, to put it plainly, are wrong.

Photo by Lou George/USFWS • The Kirtland’s Warbler is an endangered songbird that has seen its numbers slowly increase thanks to the protection of the Endangered Species Act.

If there’s ever been a government regulation that has done what it set out to do, it has been the Endangered Species Act. Without the ESA, many of our birds, including the nation’s official bird, might no longer still exist on the planet. The bald eagle had been reduced to a mere 417 pairs in 1963. With the passage of the ESA, the eagle began to rebound. In 2007, in a highly publicized success story, the existence of 11,040 pairs of bald eagles in the United States allowed this majestic bird to be removed from its listing under the ESA in 2007.

Photo by USFWS • Whooping cranes still exist largely due to protections afforded them by the Endangered Species Act.

The bald eagle is only one of the many birds to benefit from the protection of the ESA. The tall and stately whooping crane and the beautiful and tiny Kirtland’s warbler are some of the other birds that are slowly showing population increases once they were afforded intensive protection under the ESA. The nene, or Hawaiian goose, and the peregrine falcon — the world’s fastest bird — have also received much needed protection.

Lest anyone think that eagles and other formerly endangered species are completely out of the woods, just consider the recent rash of bald eagle shootings in Tennessee. Two eagles, one in Rhea County and one in Meigs County, were victims of shootings. The severity of their injuries resulted in both birds being euthanized.

It’s heartbreaking to think that anyone would shoot a bald eagle, a bird that all patriotic Americans should revere as a lofty symbol of the nation’s majesty. The shootings are a reminder that it’s still not a safe world for many of the birds and other creatures that share the planet with us. The ESA is a marvelous piece of legislation that gives a measure of protection to the helpless. The law allows all Americans to share in the responsibility of being wise stewards of God’s diverse and wonderful creatures.

Photo by Steve Maslowski/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service • The golden-cheeked warbler, a beautiful but endangered songbird that nests in Texas, is one of many birds that benefits from protections provided by the Endangered Species Act.

Demanding that the government keep the ESA strong and intact is not and should not be mere politics. It’s showing that Americans still value wildlife and the rights of future generations to enjoy that wildlife over money and short-term profits. Left or right, Republican or Democrat, the Endangered Species Act should be immune to political differences.

On a purely personal level, I hope to one day see such endangered songbirds as the golden-cheeked warbler and the black-capped vireo, and I want the same for future generations. That’s not likely to happen without the protections of the ESA remaining strong and intact.

Let your state and federal representatives know that you support continued protections for birds and other wildlife. We can co-exist with the amazing variety of wild creatures that share our planet. It’s just a matter of priorities. Our congressional representatives and senators need to know Americans aren’t willing to tolerate attacks on the ESA. Our president and his administration need to receive the same message.

Photo by Ted Heuer/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service • The Nene, or Hawaiian goose, has gradually increased in numbers thanks to the Endangered Species Act.

If you enjoy birds, keep visiting local and state parks. Continue planning trips to National Parks and Wildlife Refuges. Don’t stop feeding your backyard birds. Most importantly, fight to make sure the wildlife that makes the world a richer place continues to find that humans do make good neighbors.

For information on how to contact your government officials to express your thoughts on the value of the Endangered Species Act, visit http://www.usa.gov/elected-officials.

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