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Ongoing pandemic doesn’t stop club’s annual Spring Bird Count

Photo by Bryan Stevens • Several species of herons were located on the Spring Bird Count for Northeast Tennessee,, including Black-crowned Night Heron.

Not even a pandemic could prevent the Elizabethton Bird Club from conducting the 77th consecutive Elizabethton Spring Bird Count. The annual survey was held Saturday, May 2. The area covered included Carter County and parts of the adjacent counties of Johnson, Sullivan, Unicoi and Washington. Fifty-one observers participated in 22 parties using the suggested social distancing protocols.

Although I counted alone due to social distancing, I had a wonderful day. I even added a new life bird to my list when I saw a Mississippi Kite at Sycamore Shoals State Historic Park in Elizabethton. My fellow participants also found some good birds.

Photo by Richard/Adobe Stock • A solitary Mississippi kite sits perched in a lakeside tree.

A total of 159 species were tallied. The recent 30-year average is 149 species. However, broken down by decades, this particular count has seen a steady increase during that period, as follows: 1990s had an average of 145 species, the 2000s saw that increase to 150 species, and the 2010s saw another rise to 153 species. The all-time high on this count was 166 species back in 2016.

The count found 27 species of warblers, including such notable finds as Blackpoll Warbler and Nashville Warbler. The most abundant warblers were Hooded Warbler — which is my personal favorite — and Ovenbird. Each of these had 171 individuals counted.

The most abundant bird was Cliff Swallow with a total of 782 individuals counted. These swallows form nesting colonies under bridges and other structures. They have greatly increased in numbers over the past couple of decades. The other common birds, in descending order, were American Robin, 780; European Starling, 740; Canada Goose, 440; and Cedar Waxwing, 381.

Some of the notable misses on this spring’s count included Northern Bobwhite, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Common Nighthawk, Horned Lark, and Cape May Warbler.

Below is the total for the count:

Canada Goose, 440; Wood Duck, 55; Mallard, 115; Blue-winged Teal, 20; Bufflehead, 9; Common Goldeneye, 1; and Red-breasted Merganser, 3.

Photo by Bryan Stevens • Wood ducks were among the few waterfowl reported on the recent summer count.

Ruffed Grouse, 1; Wild Turkey, 26; Common Loon, 10; Pied-billed Grebe, 1; Double-crested Cormorant, 95; Great Blue Heron, 74; Green Heron,16; Black-crowned Night-Heron, 5; and Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, 5.

Black Vulture, 105; Turkey Vulture, 140; Osprey, 11; Mississippi Kite, 1; Northern Harrier, 1; Bald Eagle, 8; Cooper’s Hawk, 4; Broad-winged Hawk, 14; and Red-tailed Hawk, 30.

Sora, 3; Killdeer, 58; Spotted Sandpiper, 17; Solitary Sandpiper, 57; Lesser Yellowlegs, 25; Least Sandpiper, 3; Pectoral Sandpiper, 1; and Wilson’s Snipe, 2.

Bonaparte’s Gull, 2; Ring-billed Gull, 2; Forster’s Tern, 1; Rock Pigeon, 141; Eurasian Collared-Dove, 4; Mourning Dove, 253; Yellow-billed Cuckoo, 3; and Black-billed Cuckoo, 2.

Eastern Screech-Owl, 8; Great Horned Owl, 4; Barred Owl, 1; Northern Saw-whet Owl, 1; Chuck-will’s-widow, 13; and Eastern Whip-poor-will, 24.

Chimney Swift, 129; Ruby-throated Hummingbird, 32; Belted Kingfisher, 11; Red-headed Woodpecker, 9; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 117; Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, 9; Downy Woodpecker, 69; Hairy Woodpecker, 11; Northern Flicker, 47; and Pileated Woodpecker, 57.

Photo by Bryan Stevens • Eastern Kingbirds are easily identified thanks to the band of white at the end of the bird’s black tail feathers.

American Kestrel, 4; Peregrine Falcon, 1; Eastern Wood-Pewee, 11; Acadian Flycatcher, 10; Least Flycatcher, 10; Eastern Phoebe, 166; Great Crested Flycatcher, 21; Eastern Kingbird, 60; Loggerhead Shrike, 1.

White-eyed Vireo, 9; Yellow-throated Vireo, 9; Blue-headed Vireo, 107; Warbling Vireo, 12; Red-eyed Vireo, 248; Blue Jay, 273; American Crow, 349; Fish Crow, 2; Common Raven, 12.

Northern Rough-winged Swallow, 121; Purple Martin, 61; Tree Swallow, 315; Barn Swallow, 170; Cliff Swallow, 782.

Carolina Chickadee, 236; Tufted Titmouse, 226; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 8; White-breasted Nuthatch, 44; Brown Creeper, 3; House Wren, 82; Winter Wren, 8; Marsh Wren, 1; Carolina Wren, 245; Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, 102; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 5; and Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 5.

Eastern Bluebird, 238; Veery, 14; Swainson’s Thrush, 6; Hermit Thrush, 3; Wood Thrush, 112; American Robin, 778; Gray Catbird, 91; Brown Thrasher, 89; Northern Mockingbird, 149; European Starling, 740; and Cedar Waxwing, 381.

Ovenbird, 171; Worm-eating Warbler, 29; Louisiana Waterthrush, 44; Northern Waterthrush, 4; Golden-winged Warbler, 5; Black-and-white Warbler, 113; Swainson’s Warbler, 9; Nashville Warbler, 1; Kentucky Warbler, 3; Common Yellowthroat, 25; Hooded Warbler, 171; American Redstart, 25; Northern Parula, 68; Magnolia Warbler, 4; Blackburnian Warbler, 12; Yellow Warbler, 8; Chestnut-sided Warbler, 36; Blackpoll Warbler, 1; Black-throated Blue Warbler, 103; Palm Warbler, 4; Pine Warbler, 13; Yellow-rumped Warbler, 57; Yellow-throated Warbler, 32; Prairie Warbler, 3; Black-throated Green Warbler, 144; Canada Warbler, 37; and Yellow-breasted Chat, 9.

Eastern Towhee, 266; Chipping Sparrow, 125; Field Sparrow, 81; Savannah Sparrow, 6; Grasshopper Sparrow, 1; Song Sparrow, 333; Swamp Sparrow, 3; White-throated Sparrow, 20; White-crowned Sparrow, 1; and Dark-eyed Junco, 91.

Photo by Bryan Stevens • A Song Sparrow brings a beakful of caterpillars back to the nest to feed young.

Summer Tanager, 1; Scarlet Tanager, 94; Northern Cardinal, 364; Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 49; Blue Grosbeak, 5; and Indigo Bunting, 97.

Bobolink, 1; Red-winged Blackbird, 346; Eastern Meadowlark, 103; Rusty Blackbird, 2; Common Grackle, 304; Brown-headed Cowbird, 122; Orchard Oriole, 35; and Baltimore Oriole, 26.

House Finch, 111; Red Crossbill, 5; Pine Siskin, 28; American Goldfinch, 353; and House Sparrow, 59.

The birds found in Northeast Tennessee in the spring are much the same as those found in Southwest Virginia and Western North Carolina. The key is to keep your eyes open and get into the field whenever possible. As always, I enjoy hearing from readers when they have an interesting observation to share. I hope everyone’s seeing wonderful birds this spring.

Photo by Bryan Stevens
A Rose-breasted Grosbeak finds a meal of sunflower seeds at a feeder.

Region’s two oriole species make their spring return

Photo by MillionPM/Pixabay.com • Oranges, as well as offerings of grape jelly, are often successful at luring Baltimore orioles to feeders.

Earlier this spring, Kaylynn Wilster, who resides in Jonesborough, Tennessee, emailed me for information about orioles.

“Do you know when the orioles return to our area?” Kaylynn asked. In her email, she also shared that she had a female Baltimore oriole gathering nesting materials in her yard last summer.

“I put out an oriole feeder this year,” she added. So far, she noted, only chickadees have discovered the grape jelly.

In addition, Brenda Hickman Dishner, who lives near Holston Dam in Bristol, Tennessee, contacted me through Facebook to ask if I have seen orioles in the area.

Brenda added that she has put out oriole feeders for the past three years with no luck.

Photo provided by Gloria Blevins • A male Baltimore Oriole visits a feeder at the Blevins home in Damascus, Virginia.

It seems many people are hoping to welcome these bright orange and black birds to their feeders. In my reply to Kaylynn and Brenda, I told them to expect orioles to arrive in late April and early May. I’ve found orioles uncommon visitors to my home, but my prediction on timing proved more or less correct.

Gloria Blevins shared a photo of the Baltimore orioles that have been visiting her home in Damascus, Virginia. In a Facebook message, she shared that the orioles have been feeding on grape jelly that she had provided them since May 2.

Although she no longer lives locally, Kathy Noblet has been seeing lots of Baltimore orioles at her home in Mount Vernon, Ohio, since late April. Her photographs of these colorful birds have been nothing short of amazing. She has shared new photographs on Facebook on an almost daily basis for the past couple of weeks.

“The orioles continue to come to my deck and pig out on grape jelly,” Kathy posted on May 6. “They are fun to watch!”

I also heard back from Kaylynn on May 15. “There was a male oriole getting a drink at my pond about four days ago,” she informed me in an email.

Photo by USFWS • Baltimore orioles, like this male, are members of the blackbird family, making them relatives of species such as Eastern meadowlarks, brown-headed cowbirds, common grackles and red-winged blackbirds.

The Baltimore oriole, despite its bright plumage, is a member of one of the blackbird clans, known in scientific circles as the Icterus genus. In his book, “Birds of Forest, Yard, and Thicket,” John Eastman notes that there are 26 species in the genus, eight of which nest in the United States.

In the eastern United States, there are only two orioles — the Baltimore oriole and its smaller relative, the orchard oriole. The western half of the nation is home to a half dozen orioles, including Bullock’s oriole, Scott’s oriole, Audubon’s oriole, hooded oriole and Altamira oriole. I saw several gaudy, noisy Bullock’s orioles during a trip to Utah in May of 2006.

Tall trees are an essential part of the Baltimore oriole’s favored habitat. Baltimore orioles are well-known for their colorful appearance, but their fame also rests with a sack-like nest that Eastman describes as a “durable marvel of tight-woven plant fibers” in his informational book. Eastman also notes that during another era in America, the Baltimore oriole often built its marvelous nests in American elms before Dutch elm disease almost eradicated these trees from the landscape. He reports that maples, willows and apples have served as nesting trees in the absence of elms. Once the hard-working female oriole sets to work, she may spend eight days or longer weaving plant fibers into a strong pouch suspended from the outer ends of drooping branches. The durability of the nest means that other birds, including house finches, may occupy the old nest once abandoned by the original inhabitant.

Orioles are present in the region from April to October, retreating to the American tropics for the winter. There they may live on plantations that produce such much-coveted crops as bananas, coffee and cacao, which is the essential ingredient for chocolate.

George Calvert, Lord Baltimore

The Baltimore oriole is named in honor of one of the founding fathers of the state of Maryland. George Calvert, or Baron Baltimore, was an influential English colonist instrumental in establishing the colony of Maryland. His servants wore orange and black uniforms, which inspired early American naturalist Mark Catesby to name the bird the Baltimore oriole. The bird’s association with the the city of Baltimore and the state of Maryland have continued to this day. The bird is also famous as the namesake of one of America’s professional baseball teams.

Baltimore orioles eat insects and fruit, but these adaptive birds have also developed a fondness for sweet nectar. Orioles no longer have to raid sugar water feeders meant for hummingbirds. Many manufacturers of bird-feeding equipment now produce affordable sugar water feeders specifically designed for use by orioles. Many bird enthusiasts also use orange slices and grape jelly to lure orioles into their yards. I’ve tried these tricks, but I’ve attracted more gray catbirds and scarlet tanagers than I have orioles. In my book, that’s not a disappointment. I happen to like catbirds and tanagers.

With orioles, I’ve had better luck by refraining from a bit of pest control. Back in the late 1990s, I observed a male Baltimore oriole visiting a large caterpillar tent in the branches of a cherry tree. The bird methodically plucked the caterpillars from the silken tent, eating them one after the other. I’ve since learned that this is not an odd occurrence for Baltimore orioles. While many birds avoid spiny and hairy caterpillars, orioles actively seek them out and do a great service by reducing the damage these hungry caterpillars can inflict on the environment.

If you’re wanting to see orioles, I can share some area “hot spots” for these colorful birds. The waterfront at Winged Deer Park in Johnson City, Tennessee, has fewer tall trees than it did a few years ago, but the remaining trees still attract orioles. Warriors Path State Park in Kingsport, Tennessee, has long been a place that local birders depend on for sightings of Baltimore orioles. I also had some impressive sightings of both orioles at Hungry Mother State Park a few years ago. Although those birds could have been spring migrants, this park in Marion, Virginia, certainly offers habitat that orioles would find attractive.

Want more details on how to attract orioles to your yard using specialized feeders? Check out this helpful article from Birds and Blooms. https://www.birdsandblooms.com/birding/attracting-birds/bird-nesting/how-to-attract-orioles/

Photo by Bryan Stevens • In the western part of the United States, the Baltimore oriole is replaced by Bullock’s oriole.

Returning ruby-throats, like the rest of world’s hummingbirds, never fail to dazzle

Photo by Anne and Saturnino Miranda/Pixabay.com • The Cuban emerald is a species of hummingbird found in a wide range of semi-open habitats in Cuba, as well as the Isle of Pines and the western Bahamas. Numbering 330 species, the world’s hummingbirds dazzle humans with their incredibly diverse plumages.

Experts estimate that there are 330 species of hummingbirds, all of which are found in the New World. Consider that these dazzling little birds have been given vividly descriptive names, such as cinnamon-throated hermit, red-tailed comet, blue-chinned sapphire, lazuline sabrewing, sparkling violetear, fiery topaz, green-tailed goldenthroat, bronze-tailed plumeleteer,  amethyst-throated mountain-gem, peacock coquette, red-billed emerald, empress brilliant, purple-backed sunbeam, green-backed hillstar, orange-throated sunangel, black metaltail, marvelous spatuletail and blue-tufted starthroat.

The only reliable species to inhabit the eastern United States from spring to fall each year is the ruby-throated hummingbird, which is currently arriving at various points from Florida to Maine and westward to states like Illinois, Minnesota and Oklahoma.

Photo by Bryan Stevens • Numbers of Ruby-throated Hummingbird in the region tend to fluctuate each year, but people should see a spike in their numbers when the hummingbirds end summer nesting and start migrating south again this autumn.

One of my most memorable hummingbird sightings took place in January of 1999 during a cruise in the Bahamas. A stopover in Nassau and a visit to the Paradise Island Resort permitted me a fleeting glimpse of a Bahama woodstar, a small hummingbird with a superficial resemblance to the ruby-throated hummingbird. The real beauty from my visit to the Bahamas, however, took place on a private cay maintained by the Disney Cruise line. While many passengers enjoyed the sun and sand of the beach, I walked nature trails to find birds. 

Photo by Daniel Roberts/Pixabay.com • The calliope hummingbird is the smallest of its kind known to reside in North America.

I found Western spindalis, then known as stripe-headed tanager, as well as black-faced grassquits and bananaquits, and I got several close looks at male and female Cuban emeralds, a hummingbird found in a wide range of semi-open habitats in Cuba, the Isle of Pines and the western Bahamas. The male is almost entirely metallic or iridescent green and measures almost four inches long. The ones I encountered were also curious and quite tame, often flying within inches of my face. 

Other than the two hummingbirds I saw during that trip, my remaining hummingbird observations have been confined to the United States. That hasn’t prevented me from seeing such unexpected hummingbirds as green-breasted mango, calliope hummingbird, black-chinned hummingbird, rufous hummingbird, Allen’s hummingbird, and broad-tailed hummingbird. 

Photo by Anne and Saturnino Miranda/Pixabay.com • It’s not difficult at all to see how the male Cuban emerald in such vibrant green plumage acquired its common name.

If I ever win the lottery, I plan to see as many hummingbirds as I can. For now, I am happy to report that ruby-throated hummingbirds are returning to northeast Tennessee, southwest Virginia, and western North Carolina.

I received an email from Susie Parks, who lives in the North Cove section of McDowell County in North Carolina. “My daughter, Luanne Graham, and I sighted our first hummer on March 28,” Priscilla noted. 

“I read your column in the McDowell News,” she added. “I am 84 years old and have been a birder most of my life.” 

Susie added that she and her daughter are both retired teachers who live next to each other. “We put our feeders out earlier than usual because she had heard that the hummers might be arriving earlier this year,” Susie wrote.

Susie noted that the first hummingbird sighted at her own feeder arrived on the first day of April, a few days after the hummingbird that visited her daughter’s feeder. “I keep a journal and I always note the first sighting,” she added, “and this is the earliest hummer I have ever recorded.”

This sightings by Susie and Luanne are the earliest I’ve had reported to me this year. 

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Facebook friend Jimmie Daniels in Newland, North Carolina, reported on her Facebook page that the first hummingbird of spring arrived at 6:24 p.m. on Wednesday, April 8.  “We just saw our first hummingbird and that always makes me happy,” she wrote. “If you have not put out feeders yet, it is a good time to do that.”

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Bob Cheers of Bristol, Virginia, reported a ruby-throated female arrived at his home at 7:55 a.m. on Friday, April 10. He speculated that the hummingbird was possibly “the same gal that arrived last year on the same day but 10 hours later.” Bob added that hummingbirds are amazing and that it was almost inconceivable to him that it could be the same bird. Bob, who had read in previous columns that downy woodpeckers and Carolina chickadees occasionally take a sip of sugar water from hummingbird feeders, also asked if I had ever heard of a red-bellied woodpecker feeding regularly at a hummingbird feeder. I’ve not personally witnessed this, but perhaps some readers have seen red-bellied woodpeckers at sugar water feeders. Let me know!

Photo by Bryan Stevens • Despite a perceived disadvantage of size, ruby-throated hummingbirds are quite capable of thriving in a giant world.

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Brenda Hickman Dishner posted on my Facebook page that she spotted her first hummer of spring on Friday, April 10. “We live near Highway 421 and Houston Dam in Bristol, Tennessee,” she added.

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Philip Laws, who lives in Limestone Cove in Unicoi County, reported to me on Facebook that he saw his first hummingbirds on April 10. “Hummers returned to Limestone Cove on Good Friday,” Philip noted.

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Jeanne Siler Lilly reported her first spring hummingbird with a comment on my Facebook page. “I saw one at my feeder on April 10,” she wrote, adding that the bird visited a couple of times.

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Mary Jones in Johnson City said her first hummingbird this year arrived on April 11. “I had one show up the Saturday before Easter and every day since,” she wrote in a Facebook comment. 

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Dianna Lynne in Elizabethton saw her first hummingbird this spring on April 11. “They stopped in on Easter morning at the porch feeder here in Stoney Creek,” Dianne said in a comment on Facebook.

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Erwin resident Amy Wallin Tipton saw her first ruby-throated hummingbird on Easter Sunday.  “I just wanted to let you know I just saw my first male ruby-throat of the season,” Amy wrote in a Facebook message. “It was at 11:55 a.m.”

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Lia Pritchard saw her first hummer of the season on Easter Sunday at her home in Fall Branch, Tennessee. Her father, Glen Eller, shared the report of Lia’s sighting.

Photo by Bryan Stevens • Keep hummingbirds happy with a sugar water solution of four parts water to one part sugar.

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Lynda Carter, who lives in Jonesborough, saw her first hummingbird at 8:45 a.m. on Monday, April 13, after a stormy night. “The bird may have blown in sideways from Arkansas last night,” Lynda joked in an email.

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Richard Lewis in Bristol sent me a message on Facebook to announce the arrival of his first spring hummingbird. “I had my first ruby-throated hummingbird Monday, April 13, at 6 p.m. at my home in Bristol, Tennessee,” he wrote.

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Joneen Sargent, who lives in Sullivan County west of Holston Lake off Highway 421, emailed me at 8:06 p.m. on Monday, April 13, to report her first spring hummingbird. “Just saw my first hummingbird of the season,” Joneen wrote. “Gives me hope.”

•••••

Jane Arnold emailed me to notify me of her mother’s hummingbird sighting. Her mother, Betty Poole, who lives in Abingdon, Virginia, saw her first hummingbird — a female — on Wednesday, April 15. Jane’s still awaiting her first spring hummer. 

•••••

Priscilla Gutierrez saw the first hummingbirds of spring the morning of Wednesday, April 15. “I put out a feeder and by 6 p.m. they were coming to [the] feeder,” Priscilla added in a comment on my Facebook page. 

•••••

Erwin resident April Kerns Fain posted on her Facebook page at 5:32 p.m. on Thursday, April 16, that she saw her first hummingbird. 

Erwin resident Pattie Rowland posted on my Facebook page that she saw her first ruby-throated hummingbird on Friday, April 17. “Just saw a hummer in Erwin,” Pattie wrote. 

•••••

Sharee Bowman reported her first hummingbird of spring in a Facebook message. “I saw my first hummingbird in Cedar Bluff, Virginia, on Friday, April 17,” she wrote. 

Photo by Bryan Stevens • A ruby-throated hummingbird lifts its wings to shake water droplets off its back.

Flocks of red-winged blackbirds, other sightings, could signal winter’s end

Photo by JudaM/Pixabay.com • Feeders are a good way to tempt red-winged blackbirds closer for great views. Males are exceptional in their glossy black plumage with red wing patches accented by a hint of yellow. Females are brown and striped, giving them a similar appearance to large sparrows.

 

H. Lea Jones, Jr. of Bristol, Virginia, wrote to me after seeing my post about pileated woodpeckers a few weeks ago.

“I read with interested your story about this woodpecker,” Lea wrote in an email. “I have been keeping up feeding the birds, which both of my now deceased parents loved to watch, outside the large kitchen windows of their home which I inherited. One day, a couple of years back, while manning the chair and watching the birds, I was startled to see two of these woodpeckers hanging from my extra large suet cage. There was one on each side. Maybe a male and a female?”

Photo by Mike Dobe/Pixabay.com • A pileated woodpecker visits a suet feeder.

Lea noted that the two woodpeckers stayed at the suet for maybe 30 seconds. “I was shocked to see these huge birds and only could assume, at the time, they were woodpeckers. Just very beautiful birds!”

After a little research, Lea discovered the identity of the visitors. “And now I know the ‘sound’ in the wooded area behind the house,” Lea wrote. I had also described the sound in my post.

“Nothing like it I’d ever heard before,” Lea wrote. “Since reading your article, I now realize what a rare sight I have been blessed with. It was truly an amazing sight indeed.”

Dr. John Brenner sent me an email recently about an unexpected sighting at his home in Abingdon, Virginia, on Thursday, Feb. 13, around 5 p.m.

“I saw a Baltimore oriole in my back yard,” he reported. “It was sitting on a fence then flew over to my feeders where it walked around under them.”

He explained that he lives in the heart of Abingdon and has been living at his current address for about three and a half years. “This is the first time I have seen this bird,” he said. “I thought it was unusual.”

Photo by USFWS • Baltimore orioles, like this male, are members of the blackbird family, making them relatives of species such as Eastern meadowlarks, brown-headed cowbirds, common grackles and red-winged blackbirds.

Winter sightings of orioles are rather unusual, but they are not unheard of. The North Carolina Birds website details the emerging phenomenon of wintering orioles.

“Until the 1960s, it (Baltimore oriole) essentially did not winter in the United States, but with milder winters and people putting out oranges and peanut butter on their feeders, and not just various seeds and suet, a number of orioles started wintering from North Carolina to Florida,” according to a profile of the species. Straying into Virginia would certainly not be out of the question, although Baltimore orioles are usually expected in southwest Virginia and Northeast Tennessee from April to October.

In the last couple of weeks, large flocks of red-winged blackbirds have been making stops at my home. The largest flock numbered about 50 individual birds. Red-winged blackbirds are often considered harbingers of spring, but these birds arrived with some of the recent wintry weather that arrived in February.

Photo by Bryan Stevens • A male red-winged blackbird sings to attract mates and ward off rivals.

I’ve long associated red-winged blackbirds with early spring. I also had a single red-winged blackbird make a one-day visit earlier in February during a snowstorm. Those February visitors are the vanguard of large numbers of red-winged blackbirds that return in impressive numbers every March. The blackbirds arriving now behave much differently than the quiet, shy ones that often make brief visits to feeders during late winter snowstorms.

The showy and loud red-winged blackbirds made themselves at home at my fish pond and adjacent stands of cattails, producing quite a commotion. “The kon-ke-ree song of the male red-winged blackbird is a sure indication that spring is on the way,” according to a profile of the species located at the Tennessee Watchable Wildlife website. At this time of year, the male red-winged blackbirds seek elevated perches to display and vocalize.

The male red-winged blackbirds is a very aptly named bird. Glossy black males sport red wing patches that are often trimmed with a narrow band of yellow feathers. By contrast, female red-winged blackbirds are mostly brown birds that could easily be mistaken for large sparrows. Both sexes have sharply pointed bills.

Photo by Bryan Stevens • Red-winged blackbirds arrive as a noisy flock on a wintry February evening.

After I posted on Facebook about the sightings of the red-winged blackbird flocks, Rita Schuettler, a fan of these birds and a resident of Elizabethton, Tennessee, asked whether these flocks were unseasonably early.

Photo by Lintow/Pixabay.com • Female red-winged blackbirds could easily be mistaken for a large sparrow.

I told Rita in a subsequent post that a friend in Atlanta has informed me that he began seeing the blackbird flocks in his neighborhood a couple of weeks ago. So they are right on time for make their appearance in Northeast Tennessee. Laura Evans Barden also posted on my Facebook page that she has been seeing red-winged blackbirds in recent weeks, as well as more common grackles and European starlings.

Red-winged blackbirds are fond of wetlands. Any marsh, damp field or flooded pasture is likely to attract a few resident red-winged blackbirds. Females choose nesting locations in cattails or other marsh vegetation. She usually lays three or four eggs. Although she does receive some help from the male, most of the responsibility for raising the young is left to her.

There is a reason that male red-winged blackbirds are not always quite as engaged in feeding and tending their young. Male red-winged blackbirds are often polygynous, which means that males will often court multiple mates. His time is often occupied defending females and their respective nests from the advances of other male red-winged blackbirds.

Other relatives of the red-winged blackbird in the United States include the tricolored blackbird found along the Pacific Coast and the yellow-headed blackbird resident in wetlands west of the Great Lakes. Rusty blackbird, common grackle and brown-headed cowbird are other species of blackbirds found in Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina.

Photo by Bryan Stevens  • This yellow-headed blackbird was photographed at Antelope Island State Park in Utah in 2006.